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The Cambodia Killing Fields – Will the world ever learn?

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Last Update: January 2023

The Cambodia Killing Fields are a number of sites in Cambodia where collectively
more than one million people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime.

Quoted from wikipedia

On my first visit to Cambodia in 2008 I knew little to nothing about the shocking events that had happened here. Sure, I had heard mentions about Cambodia killing fields and Khmer Rouge, but no details. As it turned out I wasn’t prepared and the whole thing caught me completely off guard.

From 1975 to 1979 a mass genocide took place in Cambodia, killing an estimated 2 million men, women and children. This accounts for 25% of the total Cambodian population at that time. 

Just let that sink in for a moment…25%

The Choeung Ek killing field and the Tuol Sleng genocide museum, both in Phnom Penh, are the most important monuments of the dire events. 

Choeung Ek memorial - Cambodia killing fields
Choeung Ek memorial
Tuol Sleng prison building - Cambodia killing fields
Tuol Sleng prison

A visit to Phnom Penh is not complete without visiting these monuments for two reasons. First of all, to get a better understanding of Cambodia’s darkest hour. Secondly to pay your respects to the victims and survivors.

Traveling to Cambodia? Quick-check the up-to-date entry requirements

Brief history of the Cambodia Killing Fields

In 1975 the Khmer Rouge (communist party) took control of Cambodia after defeating the Khmer Republic government in the civil war. The Khmer Rouge leaders wanted to achieve national self-reliance by implementing an initial phase of agricultural collectivism.

This first phase was to be followed by a rapid social transformation. The Khmer Rouge aimed for industrial and technological development without assistance from foreign powers. Also, the Khmer Rouge believed in national purity.

Phot of the Khmer Rouge leaders, responsible for the Cambodia killing fields
The Cambodian Khmer Rouge leaders (L-R), Pol Pot, Noun Chea, Leng Sary, Son Sen and other supporters. Photocredit: HENG SINITH/EPA

For the initial phase the Khmer Rouge drove the entire population out of the cities and into the country to work on the fields. Families, including infants and elderly had to march for days on end in the blistering sun guarded by child soldiers with guns. When they finally reached their destination, the Khmer Rouge forced them to hard labor under a strict regime. Due to severe mismanagement most crops failed, which started a famine.

The leaders insisted on self sufficiency, even with regards to the (non) supply of medicine. Because of this, many Cambodians died from otherwise treatable diseases.



Teachers, doctors, lawyers, were all considered “intellectuals” and not suitable for re-education, but subversive to the regime. It is said that even wearing glasses was looked upon as a sign of intellect and therefore suspicious. A “witch hunt” started to track down all people that might be a threat to the regime. Everybody was a suspect and could be arrested at any time.

“The Khmer Rouge persecuted the so-called “Intellectuals” and sent some of them to work camps. More often though, they were brutally killed. Likewise, Muslims, Christians, minorities and people of mixed ethnicity were seen as a threat to the pure Khmer race and suffered the same faith as the “intellectuals”.

As a result, people lived in a “society of fear” and turned in their neighbors, friends or family. They desperately wanted to show their loyalty to the Khmer Rouge to prevent from being accused themselves.

In 1979 Vietnamese troops invaded or liberated (depending on who you ask) Cambodia and ousted the Khmer Rouge. However, the UN still recognized the Khmer Rouge as the legitimate government of Cambodia until 1989. Finally, the Cambodian-Vietnamese war officially ended in 1991 with the signing of the Paris peace accords

Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum

The Khmer Rouge transformed a former secondary school in Phnom Penh into security prison S-21, nowadays known as the Tuol Sleng genocide museum. “Intellectuals” and other suspected subversives were taken to S-21 for interrogation. Under torture they would confess to whatever the charges to subsequently be killed.

Over time, S-21 imprisoned an estimated 17,000 people, and this was only one of at least 150 torture camps in Cambodia. Bodies were initially buried near the prison site. By 1976, prisoners were transported to be killed and buried at the Choeung Ek extermination center just 15 kilometers outside Phnom Penh, because of a lack of burial space at the prison.

S-21 prison cel
Interrogation room


The Khmer Rouge documented everything, because the signed confessions would justify what they were doing. Perhaps, the Khmer Rouge realized there was going to be an outrage when the world would find out.

Thousands of portrait photos of the prisoners are displayed in the museum. Over time, the photos somehow got separated from their dossiers. Therefore most people in the photos remain anonymous until today.

Tuol Sleng genocide museum - Cambodia killing fields

Furthermore, the museum also displays the prison cells and torture rooms as well as photos of mutilated corpses found by the Vietnamese army when they arrived.


“Strange enough, it was the portrait photos that got to me. Even more so than the corpse photos and the torture tools. The portrait photos literally sent chills down my spine. Thousands of faces of men, women and children staring me straight in the eye. Some of them frightened and desperate, others apathetic or with strained grins. What went through their heads? Did they know what was coming? Why didn’t the world do anything?

Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum: St 113, Phnom Penh. Opens daily from 8am to 5pm. Admission $5 and $3 for the audio tour, which I highly recommend. No dress code, but please dress respectfully.

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Choeung Ek Killing Field

Almost 20,000 Cambodia killing fields, scattered throughout the country, confirm at least 1,4 million victims of execution. “Boeung Choeung Ek” (crow’s feet pond) is one of the largest mass graves. After the fall of the Khmer Rouge regime, 8,895 bodies were found here. Most of the victims were prisoners from the S-21 prison in Phnom Penh.

Unearthed human bones and skulls from the Cambodia killing fields

The Khmer Rouge appointed group of peasant teenagers to carry out the killings. To save on ammunition they used iron bars, pickaxes, machetes and sharpened bamboo sticks. Infants had their heads bashed against trees so they would not grow up to take revenge for their parents’ executions.

A Buddhist stupa displays thousands of excavated human skulls behind glass panels. The grounds at Choeung Ek are green and peaceful now. However, many bodies still lie buried in the shallow graves. It’s very disturbing that after heavy rains, fragments of human bones become unearthed and visible throughout the area.

Excavated skulls fro the Choeung Ek Killing Fields
Excavated skulls of Khmer Rouge victims

Never forget

I struggled to keep my posture, but when I got to the tree where the infants were killed I was unable to hold in my emotions. While trying to grasp the horrors that happened only 30 years ago it hit me. Every other person I met and still would meet in Cambodia had gone through this gruesome period. Above all, it really made me appreciate their resilience and strength. At that moment I was thankful that through my visit I could pay my respects to the people of Cambodia.”

Choeung Ek Genocidal Center: #25 Choeung Ek Road, Phnom Penh. Opens daily from 8am to 5:30pm. Admission $6 incl. audio tour. No dress code, but please dress respectfully.

Combined visit Cambodia Killing Fields and Genocide Museum

It’s perfectly possible to combine the Cambodia Killing Fields and Genocide museum in a half day. The easiest way is to charter a tuk-tuk. Cost will be about $20 or a bit more, depending on your negotiation skills.

The Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum is close to the city center and on the way to Choeung Ek. A visit to the museum will take about 2 hours. After that, it’s a 30 minute ride to Choeung Ek were you can spend 1,5 hours and subsequently a 30 minute ride back to the city.

If you feel more comfortable visiting the Cambodia Killing Fields and the Genocide Museum on a tour than make your choice from the available tours below. We did the first one, which is a private tour and cost a lot more than the hop-on-hop-off tour. However, our excellent English speaking guide provided invaluable extra context.

Do you feel that travel should only be about fun or does it also make sense to visit memorials? Let us know your thoughts in the comments below.

Safe travels,


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